Living with one kidney
Human beings can live with one healthy kidney in human body anatomy (Daniel S. Wibowo, 2008:59) mentioned that the kidneys are the most frequently bypassed organs other than the brain. Within a minute, about 20% of human blood will pass through the kidneys to be cleaned. This means that there are about 170 liters of fluid each day. Of the whole fluid, 168.3 liters will be reabsorbed by the blood vessels and the remaining 1.7 liters is discarded as urine. This number can change according to the body condition. Because its main function is to cleanse the toxins in the blood, next to filter and cleanse the blood, if the kidneys are damaged then the body will be poisoned by the impurities produced by the body itself. According to Dr. Albert M. Hutapea (2006:197), a person experiencing renal failure will be "dry" due to lack of bodily fluids or "drowning" due to the inundation of toxic fluids from the body. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner in Super Freakonomics (2010:127-128) show that since the successful kidney graft was done by Dr. Joseph E. Murray on December 23, 1954, the public saw that medical science has reached the stage Seek miracles. How can a fresh organ be able to move from one body to another and can function properly when moved? In this period, new kidney can be obtained from the victim of a traffic accident leaving the organ in a healthy state. Sounds like doing a recycling of human body indeed. The problem is, the invention soon encountered a new obstacle. The need for direct organ transplantation soars due to the realization that human organ grafts can save humanity from the end of his life. Ultimately, the availability of human organs is never able to meet the needs. Moreover, this problem is faced with the fact of declining mortality rate due to traffic accidents in the period after the possibility of transplantation of human organs. Even according to John Rogers in the Medical Ethics (Herald Pres, 1988:108), a number of patient families sometimes expect that the weather will deteriorate, allowing for many accidents. That is, there will be more organs available. In the case of kidney organs, Levitt & Dubner (2010:127) mentions how lucky man is because the existence of the two kidneys is a beautiful keepsake of the evolutionary process. This means that the need for kidney organs is more convenient than other organs, because it can be obtained from human beings who are still alive. This premise can be strengthened by the data from an Organ of the Donation and Transplant Ireland (ODTI) report in 2015. As an illustration alone, in Ireland, the most human organ transplant still held a kidney transplant. From 2011-2015 The average occurred 135 times the operation per year. It is almost three times higher than the second stage — a heart transplant — which only ranges from 54 operations per year. However, the kidney grafting surgery is not as simple as imagined. There is a complicated process because the donor body must match the network of the donor recipient. For best results, the most suitable donor is a twin brother. That is one reason why Dr. Joseph E. Murray's first kidney graft surgery was performed in 1954. The next best option is the siblings, a new then cousin. In the case of a donor who has no blood connection, usually the body of the kidney will reject the foreign tissue that enters its body. As a result, often kidney donor recipients have to take months of medication — even years to suppress the body's rejection of the new organ. The thing that is also often misunderstood is, the nature of the two kidneys that exist in the human body is not divided by the average workload. The kidneys are two because one becomes a reserve for the other. That is, if one kidney is not functioning or removed, the body will automatically adapt. The remaining kidneys will undergo significant changes. In the range of 3 to 5 months of renal weight working alone will rise to 250 grams — up approximately 100 grams of its normal weight of only 150 grams. That's why, people willingly donate or sell one of its kidneys because in principle, the kidneys will still be able to function properly even if it works alone. With one kidney, the human body can survive for a long time, although the physical activity can not be as active as a person with two kidneys.